Sustainable Thorium Th
Demand for Th is stable and it is used for alloys and coatings. Th is abundant as lead and comes out as a biproduct when mining for more precious Rare Earth Elements, REEs. Th is mostly bound as monazite as in India and Australia but the Fen area in Norway contains unique volcanic minerals.
Th fuel cycle
Th is a fertile nuclear material like natural uranium. Th needs to capture a neutron, ending up as uranium233 which finally fissiles upon another neutron capture. Th trade will continue without export restrictions.
Transforming natural ThO2 to the stable nitrate for storage or the suitable flouride for MSR fuel is standard batch chemistry. At least 90% of Th energy content will be converted in a MSR.
1% uranium LWR efficiency
99% of the energy content in uranium is lost in enrichment and incomplete burn. It ends up in mountains of depleted uranium and longlived waste.
Th abandunce makes a ThMSR fleet the most sustainable energy system.